HTML BASICS: ------------------------------------------ GENERAL: --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Document Type <HTML> </HTML> (beginning and end of file) Title <TITLE> </TITLE> (must be in header) Header <HEAD> </HEAD> (descriptive info, such as title) Body <BODY> </BODY> (bulk of the page)
FORMATTING TAGS (appearance may vary between browsers) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Align Division <DIV ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER|JUSTIFY> </DIV> Align Heading <H? ALIGN=LEFT|CENTER|RIGHT> </H?> Author's Address <ADDRESS> </ADDRESS> Block Quote <BLOCKQUOTE> </BLOCKQUOTE> (usually indented) Citation <CITE> </CITE> (usually italics) Code <CODE> </CODE> (for source code listings) Definition <DFN> </DFN> (not widely implemented) Division <DIV> </DIV> Emphasis <EM> </EM> (usually displayed as italic) Heading <H?> </H?> (6 levels) Keyboard Input <KBD> </KBD> Large Font Size <BIG> </BIG> Sample Output <SAMP> </SAMP> Small Font Size <SMALL> </SMALL> Strong Emphasis <STRONG> </STRONG> (usually displayed as bold) Variable <VAR> </VAR>
FORMATTING PRESENTATION (text appearance specified in source HTML) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Base Font Size <BASEFONT SIZE=?> (from 1-7; default is 3) Blinking <BLINK> </BLINK> (almost as bad as moving GIF's...) Bold <B> </B> Center <CENTER> </CENTER> (for both text and images) Change Font Size <FONT SIZE=+|-?> </FONT> Font Color <FONT COLOR="#$$$$$$"> </FONT> Font Size <FONT SIZE=?> </FONT> (ranges from 1-7) Italic <I> </I> Preformatted <PRE> </PRE> (display text spacing as-is) Strikeout <S> </S> Subscript <SUB> </SUB> Superscript <SUP> </SUP> Typewriter <TT> </TT> (displays in a monospaced font) Underline <U> </U> Width <PRE WIDTH=?> </PRE> (in characters)
LINKS AND GRAPHICS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alignment <IMG SRC="URL" ALIGN=TOP|BOTTOM|MIDDLE> Alignment <IMG SRC="URL" ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|TEXTTOP|ABSMIDDLE|BASELINE|ABSBOTTOM> Alternate <IMG SRC="URL" ALT="***"> (if image not displayed) Border <IMG SRC="URL" BORDER=?> (in pixels) Client Pull <META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="?; URL=URL"> Define Target <A NAME="***"> </A> Dimensions <IMG SRC="URL" WIDTH="?" HEIGHT="?"> (in pixels) Display Image <IMG SRC="URL"> Embed Object <EMBED SRC="URL"> (insert object into page) Imagemap <IMG SRC="URL" ISMAP> (requires a script) Imagemap <IMG SRC="URL" USEMAP="URL"> Link Something <A HREF="URL"> </A> Link to Target <A HREF="URL#***"> </A> (recommend resolving URL) <A HREF="#***"> </A> (point to NAME in current document) Low-Res Proxy <IMG SRC="URL" LOWSRC="URL"> Map <MAP NAME="***"> </MAP> (describes the map) Object Size <EMBED SRC="URL" WIDTH="?" HEIGHT="?"> Runaround Space <IMG SRC="URL" HSPACE=? VSPACE=?> (in pixels) Section <AREA SHAPE="RECT" COORDS=",,," HREF="URL"|NOHREF> Target Window <A HREF="URL" TARGET="***"> </A>
DIVIDERS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alignment <HR ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER> Align Text <P ALIGN=LEFT|CENTER|RIGHT> </P> Line Break <BR> (a single carriage return) Clear Textwrap <BR CLEAR=LEFT|RIGHT|ALL> Horizontal Rule <HR> No Break <NOBR> </NOBR> (prevents line breaks) Paragraph <P> (usually a double return) Paragraph <P> </P> (redefined as a container tag) Solid Line <HR NOSHADE> (without the 3D cutout look) Thickness <HR SIZE=?> (in pixels) Width <HR WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <HR WIDTH=%> (as a percentage of page width) Word Break <WBR> (where to break a line if needed)
LISTS (lists can be nested) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bullet Type <UL TYPE=DISC|CIRCLE|SQUARE> (for the whole list) <LI TYPE=DISC|CIRCLE|SQUARE> (this & subsequent) Definition List <DL> <DT> <DD> </DL> (<DT>=term, <DD>=definition) Directory List <DIR> <LI> </DIR> (<LI> before each list item) Menu List <MENU> <LI> </MENU> (<LI> before each list item) Numbering Type <OL TYPE=A|a|I|i|1> (for the whole list) <LI TYPE=A|a|I|i|1> (this & subsequent) Ordered List <OL> <LI> </OL> (<LI> before each list item) Starting Number <OL VALUE=?> (for the whole list) <LI VALUE=?> (this & subsequent) Unordered List <UL> <LI> </UL> (<LI> before each list item)
COLORS AND BACKGROUNDS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Active Link <BODY ALINK="#$$$$$$"> Bkground Color <BODY BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$"> (order is red/green/blue) Text Color <BODY TEXT="#$$$$$$"> Tiled Bkground <BODY BACKGROUND="URL"> Link Color <BODY LINK="#$$$$$$"> Visited Link <BODY VLINK="#$$$$$$"> can be combined as follows: <body background="http://www.virtual-cafe.com/~john/TECH/grid_paper.gif" bgcolor="#abcdef" text="#000000">
SPECIAL CHARACTERS (these must all be in lower case) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright © Copyright © < < > > & & " " Registered TM ® Registered TM ® Special Character &#?; (where ? is the ISO 8859-1 code) (Complete list at <http://www.virtual-cafe.com/~john/TECH/iso8859-1.html>)
FORMS (generally require a script on your server, usually CGI-BIN) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Checked? <INPUT CHECKED> (checkboxes and radio boxes) Default Option <OPTION SELECTED> Define Form <FORM ACTION="URL" METHOD=GET|POST> </FORM> Field Name <INPUT NAME="***"> Field Size <INPUT SIZE=?> (in characters) Field Value <INPUT VALUE="***"> File Upload <FORM ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data> </FORM> Input Box Size <TEXTAREA ROWS=? COLS=?> </TEXTAREA> Input Field <INPUT TYPE="TEXT|PASSWORD|CHECKBOX|RADIO|IMAGE|HIDDEN|SUBMIT|RESET"> Max Length <INPUT MAXLENGTH=?> (in characters) Multiple Choice <SELECT MULTIPLE> (can select more than one) Name of Box <TEXTAREA NAME="***"> </TEXTAREA> Name of List <SELECT NAME="***"> </SELECT> Option <OPTION> (items that can be selected) Selection List <SELECT> </SELECT> Wrap Text <TEXTAREA WRAP=OFF|VIRTUAL|PHYSICAL> </TEXTAREA> # of Options <SELECT SIZE=?> </SELECT>
TABLES --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Define Table <TABLE> </TABLE> Table Border <TABLE BORDER> </TABLE> (either on or off) Table Border <TABLE BORDER=?> </TABLE> (you can set the value) Cell Spacing <TABLE CELLSPACING=?> Cell Padding <TABLE CELLPADDING=?> Desired Width <TABLE WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <TABLE WIDTH=%> (percentage of page) Table Caption <CAPTION> </CAPTION> Alignment <CAPTION ALIGN=TOP|BOTTOM> (above/below table) Table Row <TR> </TR> Alignment <TR ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> Table Header <TH> </TH> (same as data, except bold centered) Alignment <TH ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> No Linebreaks <TH NOWRAP> Columns to Span <TH COLSPAN=?> Rows to Span <TH ROWSPAN=?> Desired Width <TH WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <TH WIDTH=%> (percentage of table) Table Cell <TD> </TD> (must appear within table rows) Alignment <TD ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> No linebreaks <TD NOWRAP> Columns to Span <TD COLSPAN=?> Rows to Span <TD ROWSPAN=?> Desired Width <TD WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <TD WIDTH=%> (percentage of table)
FRAMES (define and manipulate specific regions of the screen) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Column Widths <FRAMESET COLS=,,,> </FRAMESET> (pixels or %) Column Widths <FRAMESET COLS=*> </FRAMESET> (* = relative size) Define Frame <FRAME> (contents of an individual frame) Display Document <FRAME SRC="URL"> Frame Document <FRAMESET> </FRAMESET> (instead of <BODY>) Frame Name <FRAME NAME="***"|_blank|_self|_parent|_top> Margin Width <FRAME MARGINWIDTH=?> (left and right margins) Margin Height <FRAME MARGINHEIGHT=?> (top and bottom margins) Not Resizable <FRAME NORESIZE> Scrollbar? <FRAME SCROLLING="YES|NO|AUTO"> Row Heights <FRAMESET ROWS=,,,> </FRAMESET> (pixels or %) Row Heights <FRAMESET ROWS=*> </FRAMESET> (* = relative size) Unframed Content <NOFRAMES> </NOFRAMES> (for non-frames browsers)
MISCELLANEOUS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Comment <! *** > (not displayed by the browser) Meta Information <META> (must be in header) Prompt <ISINDEX PROMPT="***"> (text to prompt input) Prologue <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> Prologue <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3O//DTD W3 HTML 3.0//EN"> Relationship <LINK REV="***" REL="***" HREF="URL"> (in header) Searchable <ISINDEX> (indicates a searchable index) Send Search <A HREF="URL?***"> </a> (use a real question mark)
=========================================================================== SYMBOLS USED TO DESCRIBE TAGS ON THIS PAGE --------------------------------------------------------------------------- URL URL of an external file (recommend always providing full path) ? Arbitrary number (i.e. <H?> means <H1>, <H2>, <H3>, etc.) % Arbitrary percentage (i.e. <HR WIDTH=%> means <HR WIDTH=50%>, etc.) *** Arbitrary text (i.e. ALT="***" means fill in with text) $$$$$$ Arbitrary hex (i.e. BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$" means BGCOLOR="#00FF1C", etc.) ,,, Comma-delimited (i.e. COORDS=",,," means COORDS="0,0,50,50", etc.) | Alternatives (i.e. ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER means pick one of these)
===========================================================================

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