create a tarball or zip file

steps:

1) cd one directory above directory to archive
2) (optional) enable "script":    script create-tarball
3) ls "directory"
4) tar cvf tarball.tar directory-to-tar  (you can use absolute or relative paths)
5) zip zipfile.zip directory-to-zip/*  (you can use absolute or relative paths)
6) file zipfile.zip
7) file tarball.tar
8) to extract:   tar xvf tarball.tar (aim carefully...)
9) to extract:   unzip zipfile.zip (aim carefully...)
10) (optional close script)  exit
11) (optional clean script)  perl -pi -e 's/\015//g' create-tarball
12) (optional remove non-printables)  cat create-tarball | col -b > create-tarball.txt
13) (optional edit script notes)  vi create-tarball.txt  (remove fluff, summarize commands, put on web page like this...)


------------------------------------------------
Script started on Thu 10 Oct 2013 11:12:11 AM PDT
------------------------------------------------
--> tar --help
------------------------------------------------
Usage: tar [OPTION...] [FILE]...
GNU `tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can
restore individual files from the archive.

Examples:
  tar -cf archive.tar foo bar  # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.
  tar -tvf archive.tar         # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.
  tar -xf archive.tar          # Extract all files from archive.tar.

 Main operation mode:

  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive
  -c, --create               create a new archive
  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system
      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive
  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive
      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit
  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive
  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 Operation modifiers:

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental
                             archives (default)
  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup
  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup
      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive
  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable
      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating
                             incremental archives
      --no-seek              archive is not seekable
      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file
                             in the archive; this option is valid only in
                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,
                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of
                             files is given either on the command line or via
                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1
      --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]
                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies
                             --sparse)
  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 Overwrite control:

  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting
      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than
                             their archive copies
      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories
      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting
      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when
                             extracting (default)
      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive
  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it
  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 Select output stream:

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children
      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as
                             error
  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output
      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 Handling of file attributes:

      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either
                             by restoring the times after reading
                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the
                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')
      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and
                             permissions of extracted directories until the end
                             of extraction
      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files
      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time
      --no-delay-directory-restore
                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore
                             option
      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary
                             users)
      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions
                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)
      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names
      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files
  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
                             extract information about file permissions
                             (default for superuser)
      --preserve             same as both -p and -s
      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as
                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)
  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
                             sort names to extract to match archive

 Device selection and switching:

  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE
      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon
  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive
      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 Device blocking:

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)
      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 Archive format selection:

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 FORMAT is one of the following:

    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format
    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar <= 1.12
    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
    posix                    same as pax
    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
    v7                       old V7 tar format

      --old-archive, --portability
                             same as --format=v7
      --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...
                             control pax keywords
      --posix                same as --format=posix
  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at
                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern
                             for volume name

 Compression options:

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression
                             program
  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)
  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2
  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz
      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip
      --lzma                 filter the archive through xz
      --lzop
      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the
                             compression program
  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip
  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 Local file selection:

      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name
                             starts with a dash)
      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR
      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN
      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files
      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself
      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,
                             except for FILE itself
      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE
      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories
                             containing FILE
      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories
  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they
                             point to
      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they
                             refer to
  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive
      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only
      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option
      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories
      --no-unquote           do not unquote filenames read with -T
      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C
  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive
  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading `/'s from file names
      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)
      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'
                             unless overridden by environment variable
                             SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)
  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE
      --unquote              unquote filenames read with -T (default)
  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 File name transformations:

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file
                             names on extraction
      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file
                             names

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

      --anchored             patterns match file name start
      --ignore-case          ignore case
      --no-anchored          patterns match after any `/' (default for
                             exclusion)
      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)
      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching
      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match `/'
      --wildcards            use wildcards (default for exclusion)
      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

 Informative output:

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record
                             (default 10)
      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint
      --full-time            print file time to its full resolution
      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE
  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped
      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING
      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING
      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE
                             values
  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each
                             message
      --show-defaults        show tar defaults
      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory
                             that does not match search criteria
      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
                             show file or archive names after transformation
      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;
                             with an argument - print total bytes when this
                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,
                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names
                             without SIG prefix are also accepted
      --utc                  print file modification times in UTC
  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed
      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control
  -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                             ask for confirmation for every action

 Compatibility options:

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when
                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 Other options:

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options
      --usage                give a short usage message
      --version              print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control may be set with --backup or VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

  none, off       never make backups
  t, numbered     make numbered backups
  nil, existing   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  never, simple   always make simple backups

Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:

  literal
  shell
  shell-always
  c
  c-maybe
  escape
  locale
  clocale

*This* tar defaults to:
--format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape --rmt-command=/usr/sbin/rmt
--rsh-command=/usr/bin/rsh

Report bugs to .
------------------------------------------------
--> ls 
------------------------------------------------
20130804_212001-400.jpg  20130804_221919-400.jpg  20130804_223522-400.jpg  20130804_223606-400.jpg  20130804_230309-400.jpg  20130804_230351-400.jpg  20130806_204140-400.jpg
20130804_212001.jpg      20130804_221919.jpg      20130804_223522.jpg      20130804_223606.jpg      20130804_230309.jpg      20130804_230351.jpg      20130806_204140.jpg
20130804_212006-400.jpg  20130804_221927-400.jpg  20130804_223528-400.jpg  20130804_224559-400.jpg  20130804_230319-400.jpg  20130804_230357-400.jpg  20130806_204158-400.jpg
20130804_212006.jpg      20130804_221927.jpg      20130804_223528.jpg      20130804_224559.jpg      20130804_230319.jpg      20130804_230357.jpg      20130806_204158.jpg
20130804_221851-400.jpg  20130804_222033-400.jpg  20130804_223532-400.jpg  20130804_230124-400.jpg  20130804_230327-400.jpg  20130805_142819-400.jpg  ALL.html
20130804_221851.jpg      20130804_222033.jpg      20130804_223532.jpg      20130804_230124.jpg      20130804_230327.jpg      20130805_142819.jpg      README.html
20130804_221900-400.jpg  20130804_222200-400.jpg  20130804_223544-400.jpg  20130804_230130-400.jpg  20130804_230336-400.jpg  20130805_142825-400.jpg
20130804_221900.jpg      20130804_222200.jpg      20130804_223544.jpg      20130804_230130.jpg      20130804_230336.jpg      20130805_142825.jpg
20130804_221909-400.jpg  20130804_223517-400.jpg  20130804_223601-400.jpg  20130804_230138-400.jpg  20130804_230343-400.jpg  20130805_142834-400.jpg
20130804_221909.jpg      20130804_223517.jpg      20130804_223601.jpg      20130804_230138.jpg      20130804_230343.jpg      20130805_142834.jpg
------------------------------------------------
--> tar -cvf 2.8_CRD.tar 2.8_CRD
------------------------------------------------
2.8_CRD/
2.8_CRD/20130804_221919.jpg
2.8_CRD/20130804_230309-400.jpg
...
2.8_CRD/ALL.html
...
2.8_CRD/20130804_221909.jpg
2.8_CRD/20130805_142825-400.jpg
...
2.8_CRD/README.html
2.8_CRD/20130804_223606.jpg
..
------------------------------------------------
--> compress 2.8_CRD.tar 
------------------------------------------------
The program 'compress' is currently not installed. You can install it by typing:
sudo apt-get install ncompress
------------------------------------------------
--> zip --help
------------------------------------------------
--> zip --help
Copyright (c) 1990-2008 Info-ZIP - Type 'zip "-L"' for software license.
Zip 3.0 (July 5th 2008). Usage:
zip [-options] [-b path] [-t mmddyyyy] [-n suffixes] [zipfile list] [-xi list]
  The default action is to add or replace zipfile entries from list, which
  can include the special name - to compress standard input.
  If zipfile and list are omitted, zip compresses stdin to stdout.
  -f   freshen: only changed files  -u   update: only changed or new files
  -d   delete entries in zipfile    -m   move into zipfile (delete OS files)
  -r   recurse into directories     -j   junk (don't record) directory names
  -0   store only                   -l   convert LF to CR LF (-ll CR LF to LF)
  -1   compress faster              -9   compress better
  -q   quiet operation              -v   verbose operation/print version info
  -c   add one-line comments        -z   add zipfile comment
  -@   read names from stdin        -o   make zipfile as old as latest entry
  -x   exclude the following names  -i   include only the following names
  -F   fix zipfile (-FF try harder) -D   do not add directory entries
  -A   adjust self-extracting exe   -J   junk zipfile prefix (unzipsfx)
  -T   test zipfile integrity       -X   eXclude eXtra file attributes
  -y   store symbolic links as the link instead of the referenced file
  -e   encrypt                      -n   don't compress these suffixes
  -h2  show more help
  
------------------------------------------------
--> zip 2.8_CRD.zip 2.8_CRD/*       # ( NOTE:  jpg files are already compressed )
------------------------------------------------
...
  adding: 2.8_CRD/20130804_221851.jpg (deflated 0%)
  adding: 2.8_CRD/20130804_221900-400.jpg (deflated 0%)
  adding: 2.8_CRD/20130804_221900.jpg (deflated 0%)
  adding: 2.8_CRD/ALL.html (deflated 74%)
  adding: 2.8_CRD/README.html (deflated 71%)
...
------------------------------------------------
--> file 2.8_CRD.zip
------------------------------------------------
2.8_CRD.zip: Zip archive data, at least v1.0 to extract
------------------------------------------------
--> file *.tar
2.8_CRD.tar: POSIX tar archive (GNU)
------------------------------------------------
--> exit
------------------------------------------------
exit
Script done on Thu 10 Oct 2013 11:18:59 AM PDT
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